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Turkey Kayseri

The earliest settlement around Kayseri is The Karum of Kanesh, situated 20 km to the North-east of the city. In the centre, which maintained its importance from 2800 BC to the the Hellenistic Age, many documents

from the Early Bronze Age, the Assyrian Trade Colonies and the Hittite Period were found.

After the Hittites, the region was ruled by the Phrygians who dominated mainly the Kızılırmak River basin. Mazaka (Kayseri) came into prominence during the Phrygians. It is stated in historical sources that the Kimmerians, who arrived at Anatolia in 676 BC, put an end to the Phrygian rule by destroying Kanesh and Mazaka.

After Kanesh had lost its importance, Mazaka, situated on the northern outskirts of Argaios (Erciyes) that was accepted as the holy mountain of the region, came to the forefront. With the defeat of the Kimmerians by the Assyrians and Lydians, Mazaka fell under the rule of the Lydians and the Medes and became an important trade center of the period. With the defeat of the Lydian King Krisos by the Persian King Kyros in 590 B.C., Mazaka, as well as Anatolia, came under Persian rule. People migrating to the region from Persia settled around Argaios (Erciyes) building settlements that resembled their own states.